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'in-service science teachers' Search Results



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This article presents an international study that documented the conceptions of atomic models held by 1062 in-service high school science teachers from 58 countries. First, a previous study on pre-service science teachers’ conceptions of atomic models was successfully replicated as a pilot study with an international sample of in-service science teachers. Teachers’ conceptions were investigated by analysing their drawings of atomic models. Based on these results, a multiple-choice questionnaire was developed for the main study. This questionnaire collected data on teachers’ conceptions of atomic models, teachers’ knowledge about their students’ conceptions of atomic models, and teachers’ use of atomic models in the classroom. The results show that the teachers’ conceptions of atomic models are almost evenly distributed over six different atomic models. These models are the Bohr model, the Rutherford model, the probability model, the orbital model, the probability orbit model, and the wave model. The vast majority of teachers assume that their students’ conceptions are centred on two historical atomic models, namely the Bohr model and the Rutherford model. Furthermore, the majority of teachers prefer to use historical atomic models over modern atomic models in the classroom. However, the findings also highlight that the use of modern atomic models in the classroom is positively correlated with growing teaching experience, and that teachers’ conceptions of atomic models and their knowledge of students’ conceptions of atomic models significantly influence teachers’ classroom practice.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.67
Pages: 67-80
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Preservice mathematics teachers' beliefs about actions related to the use of the technological tools in teaching mathematics may affect how they are going to use them in their classroom activities. However, there is a limited evidence of what beliefs they hold on their intended actions of using technological tools in teaching mathematics. This study presents two preservice high school mathematics teachers' actional beliefs related to their intended actions in teaching geometric transformations (GTs) using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP). The study comprised of a series of five task-based qualitative interviews with each of two senior undergraduate preservice teachers at a medium-sized public university in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. This study used a radical constructivist grounded theory (RCGT) with five assumptions—symbiosis, voice, cognition, adaptation, and praxis as a theoretical framework to guide the study process. The thematic findings of the study included four in vivo categories of their beliefs associated with actions of teaching GTs with GSP – assessment of student learning, engaging students in a group activity in exploring GTs with GSP, engaging students in individual activity in exploring GTs with GSP, and exploring GTs with GSP as 'suck it up and do it.' Pedagogical implications of these categories have been discussed.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.91
Pages: 91-106
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In this paper, the categories and influence of teachers’ classroom characteristics relative to effective mathematics teaching in secondary schools in Plateau state, Nigeria were examined. The aim was to see how students are assisted to learn mathematics from teachers engaging fully their professional practices fully. Exploratory and descriptive survey research methods were used to examine the trajectories. Sample for the study consisted of 60 trained mathematics teachers from secondary schools in Plateau state that participated in a week-long capacity building workshop on teaching new concepts from secondary school mathematics curriculum in Nigeria organized recently by the state chapter of the Mathematics Association of Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample based on the fact that the study targeted only mathematics teachers that participated in the capacity building workshop. A 52-item TCCQ on teacher effectiveness, interest, rapport with students, etc. was used for data collection. The findings from the study revealed that mathematics teachers’ ability to teach effectively is significantly associated with many factors including the use of different strategies (χ2=52.75), revision (χ2=47.13), good lesson plans (χ2=53.93) and being friendly with students (χ2=35.66). There was no significant variation regarding how the characteristics influence teacher effectiveness based on qualification (F2, 58=0.689). Among other things, therefore, it was recommended that teachers should be committed to teaching mathematics effectively in the classroom by taking cognizance of the variables especially designing of good lesson plans and previous knowledge irrespective of their qualifications.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.121
Pages: 121-130
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As international concerns about the prevalence of out-of-field teaching have grown, so have discussions about how to support out-of-field teachers. In Ireland, the Professional Diploma in Mathematics for Teaching, a two-year professional development program, was created for out-of-field mathematics teachers. A pre-test, post-test, and final survey examined the program’s impact on participating teachers’ mathematical knowledge, confidence in teaching curricular content, and classroom practice. Findings offer evidence of development in participating teachers’ mathematical knowledge and self-efficacy after completing the program. They also raise important concerns about persistent weaknesses in participating teachers’ mathematical knowledge, particularly related to key areas of the curriculum.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.1.47
Pages: 47-62
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In Nigeria, most teachers among other things lack the necessary teaching skills, and mastery of subject matter for effective teaching of mathematics at the secondary school level. These deficiencies have often resulted in high and repeated failure rates in national and standard mathematics examinations. The present study investigated the ability of mathematics teachers to construct practical and realistic word problems in bearing and distance toward mitigating the deficiencies. The research methods adopted were exploratory and descriptive surveys due to the need to explore and analyze the abilities using quantitative techniques. Sample consisted of 292 (35.48%) mathematics teachers who took part in the in-service training workshop organized by the Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN) in Plateau state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample that involved the workshop participants only. The instrument ‘construction of practical and realistic word problems in bearing and distance test (CPRWPBDT)’ was used for data collection while the analysis was carried out using simple percentages, mean scores and one-way ANOVA. The findings of the study among other things revealed that the mathematics teacher participants constructed practical and realistic word problems in bearing and distance within 91.67% completion rate, 70.45% of the problems constructed were within the context, at least 75% rate of correctness with little difficulties/errors was observed in sketching (65.90%), and reality (40.90%). The variations observed within the participants in the construction of the problems were statistically not significant. Thus it was recommended among other things that mathematics teachers should undergo regular in-service workshop training to help in developing essential skills themselves for constructing practical/realistic word problems in bearing and distance; and should avoid unnecessary errors for meaningful teaching and learning of bearing and distance.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.1.35
Pages: 35-45
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Mathematics teaching efficacy is an important construct as confidence in one’s ability to teach influences teaching practices. This paper explores pre-service primary teachers’ mathematics teaching efficacy on entry to initial teacher education and the extent that pre-tertiary mathematics experiences and resultant beliefs affected their mathematics teaching efficacy. A mixed-methods approach combined the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (N=420) and qualitative interviews (N=30). The findings suggest medium personal mathematics teaching efficacy among participants with limited conceptions of what mathematics teaching involves. While uncertain regarding their immediate teaching ability, participants reported confidence regarding their potential. Mathematics teaching outcome expectancy was high; however, an undercurrent of conviction exists that external factors, most notably learners’ natural mathematical ability, are critical to student learning.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.17
Pages: 17-33
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503
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The ability to think critically is a basic competency that must be possessed by students. This study aims to determine the level of critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Bima Regency, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Various studies have been carried out that explain how important students' critical thinking skills are, but there have not been too many studies on efforts to develop and empower students' critical thinking skills in a practical way. In this thesis, we introduce the technique of empowering students' critical thinking skills by developing a virtual laboratory media based on problem based learning on the material of the human excretory system. In this development, use software construct2 to develop a device which is then integrated with a problem based learning model. It is proven that a virtual laboratory based on problem based learning can improve the critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Belo Kaputen Bima District. We hope that the development of PBL-based virtual laboratory media can improve dramatically, such as the use of 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional software to improve students' understanding of critical and constructive thinking without losing quality.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.35
Pages: 35-47
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Numerical literacy refers to the knowledge and ability to use various numbers and basic mathematical symbols to solve problems, while math self-concept means the assessment of students’ skills, abilities, enjoyment, and interest in the subject. However, children with special needs and normal students in inclusive Elementary Schools are yet to sufficiently acquire learning that accommodates literacy and maths self-concept. This causes a need for the implementation of a children-friendly learning process. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors influencing the numeracy level and math self-concept, and also explore the obstacles in implementing children-friendly learning in order to facilitate students’ abilities. A qualitative method was applied because of in-depth data exploration regarding children with special needs, while the utilized instruments include tests, questionnaires, and interviews. Both the data collected and the analysis are qualitative, which are obtained through excavation, identification, and description. Consequently, this paper was able to (a) describe the factors influencing the numeracy level and math self-concept in inclusive elementary schools; (b) explore the barriers to implementing children-friendly learning; and (c) identify the relationship between students’ numeracy and math self-concept.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.19
Pages: 19-27
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The diversity of definitions of science literacy has resulted in a diversity of measurement tools. However, adult science literacy is mainly assessed on short standardized and non-contextualized questions, thus making the study of adult science literacy more qualitative than quantitative. Here we describe the rationale, development, and validation of a questionnaire that associates the use of science in the specific science-related setting of parents of hard of hearing children with general and topic-specific science knowledge. The questionnaire went through four developmental steps: (1) gathering input from hearing rehabilitation experts and parents, (2) testing the close-ended questionnaire (n=10), (3) open-ended questionnaire (n=24), (4) online close-ended questionnaire (n=91). These all assessed general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. These steps and the resulting assessment tool can thus inform the further development of measures of adult science literacy in context. The findings suggest that although general science knowledge enables the application of science to everyday science-related problems it only explained a small proportion of the variance in contextual science knowledge. Thus, the results strongly point to the importance of measuring adults' science literacy in a context that is relevant to the responders. The findings also underscored the disappointing outcomes of secondary science education, in that formal scientific background predicted general science knowledge but did not account for contextual science knowledge at all. This should elicit concern as to the ability of students to use science knowledge in future personally important science related contexts.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.29
Pages: 29-47
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This paper reports on part of an ongoing large-scale research on the need to improve science teaching and learning through investigating the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of biology teachers for the topic Biodiversity. Six factors have been seen to affect teacher PCK, i.e., content knowledge, knowledge of students, science teaching orientations, knowledge of assessment, knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of the curriculum. This research aimed to examine the teacher’s level of content knowledge (CK). A qualitative research paradigm was adopted, and a case study research design used. The case (unit of analysis) was Biology teacher CK, and the subjects were the four teacher participants purposively selected. Lesson observations, teacher interviews and learner questionnaires were used to collect data on teacher CK. A content knowledge analytical framework consisting of five constructs was designed and used to analyse the teacher CK and data triangulated with data collected from interviews and questionnaires. This research revealed that ‘A’ level Biology teachers’ CK vary from teacher to teacher depending on several factors which include teacher identity, planning, workshopping, and motivation among others. Of the four Biology teacher participants, two had adequate CK and the other two exhibited inadequate CK. Inadequate CK was attributed to lack of planning, non-exposure to workshops and lack of teacher motivation. Consequently, this research recommends supervision of teachers from school level to national level, a series of teacher workshops on the demands of the competence-based curriculum and constructive teacher identity as well as introduce factors that enhance teacher motivation. Further research on the content knowledge of Biology teachers in other learning areas is recommended.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.49
Pages: 49-63
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This study tested hypotheses of a hypothetical model determining the influence of teacher clarity and real-world applications while teaching group theory concepts on students’ achievement in modern algebra. The data collected from 139 undergraduate students were analyzed by regression analysis using Stata14’s structural equation model building and estimation. The path regression analysis of the model using SEM model building and estimation confirmed the research hypotheses. First, the utilization of real-world application problems while teaching group theory concepts has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Second, the clear presentation of group theory concepts by the teacher has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Finally, both teachers’ clear presentation of group theory concepts and utilization of its real-world applications have a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.111
Pages: 111-119
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Teaching Science Out-of-field: Beliefs and Practices

boundary crossing constructivist beliefs out-of-field science teaching process beliefs

Coral Campbell , Colleen Vale , Chris Speldewinde


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Out-of-field teaching in science is a phenomenon in many secondary schools across the world. While the reasons for out-of-field teaching are complex, its incidence is heightened in low socio-economic communities and in regional and remote school locations. Research on out-of-field science teaching in secondary schools has tended to focus on teacher competence, particularly in relation to pedagogical content knowledge. However, while teachers’ beliefs and teaching practices within their specialist subject are shown to be related, it is unclear how teachers’ beliefs and practices alter when teaching across subject boundaries. Using a boundary-crossing lens, where teachers engage in passing back and forth between different contexts, this study explored the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about their in-field and out-of-field discipline (science) and the connections to their teaching practice. Interview data, including a video-stimulated interview of a lesson in a teacher’s specialist field and then a subsequent out-of-field lesson, were analysed using the framework of a belief that investigated the relationships between in-field and out-of-field beliefs and practices. Findings indicate that those who teach science out-of-field revert to traditional ways of teaching, despite being more open and adventurous in their in-field discipline areas. However, there were significant instances of boundary crossing with their pedagogy to support their teaching – both in-field and out-of-field. These findings support the development of structured mechanisms and strategies to assist teachers to cross boundaries to establish new and unique interdisciplinary practices.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.133
Pages: 133-148
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The study investigated the attitudes of Biology teachers towards the Biology Competence-Based Curriculum (BCBC) and their instructional practices at the lower secondary school level in Nyamagabe district, Rwanda. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Also, a purposive sampling technique was used to select 26 (16 male and 10 female) teachers of Biology. Data were collected using a questionnaire addressed to Biology teachers in selected schools and analyzed and presented in terms of frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation. A one-way ANOVA was employed in the hypothesis testing. The findings indicated that these teachers had positive attitudes towards the implementation of BCBC. As for female ones, they had more positive attitudes towards BCBC implementation than the male ones. Considering those from boarding schools, they had a more positive attitude than the ones from day schools. Additionally, teachers with less teaching experience had more favorable attitudes than those with long experience. Teachers' age did not have any effect on their attitudes. The study also revealed that teachers of Biology rarely applied competence-based approaches in their teaching and assessment processes of students’ learning. It was inferred that the usage of CBC approaches differed significantly among teachers from boarding and day schools. The usage of CBC assessment methods did not differ significantly among teachers. From the findings, it was concluded that CBC seems not to be effectively implemented in the lower secondary schools under the study. Consequently, a recommendation was made to facilitate Biology teachers in schools with in-service training for professional development.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.3.201
Pages: 201-215
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3D printer technology and 3D design are used in many fields and are gaining various uses day by day. It is seen that the quality of education and training has increased with the effective use of 3D technology in the education and training environment. This study aims to investigate the attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers about the use of 3D printer activities made with Tinkercad in science education. 43 science pre-service teachers participated in the study, which lasted 8 weeks. A mixed research method was used in this study. The problem-solving scale and the attitude scale towards the use of 3D printers in science education were applied to the pre-service teachers. To collect the research data, the attitude scale was applied as a pre-test and post-test. For Paired samples, a t-test was applied and analyses were performed. In qualitative studies, semi-structured student interview questions were applied. According to the findings of the study, there was a significant increase in students' positive attitudes towards the use of 3D printers in science education. Tinkercad and 3D printer trainings have been given and applications have been made within the scope of these trainings. There have been 6 activities related to 3D printers. Thanks to 3D printers, students have the opportunity to present creative ideas and things they imagine to life by making designs in their minds. It seems that abstract concepts related to the sciences are embodied with a 3D printer and turned into tangible objects. Examining a physical object makes it easier for students to identify mistakes they have made in designs. It is seen that they do creative and solution-oriented work against the problems they encounter. Thus, it is predicted that learning will be more permanent and effective.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.4.217
Pages: 217-228
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Reflection requires someone to think in deep and express the impression of a phenomenon or an event. Reflection can be defined as a mirror to look at and see the personal insights, feelings, motivation, or purposes of individuals within a particular context and practice in a realistic way. This study examined the nature of pre-service science teachers’ reflections during the last semester of the teacher education program. There were four cases as student-teachers attending science teacher education program in northwest region of Turkey. The qualitative data, written reflections and researcher field notes were utilized and analyzed through inductive methods. The results indicated that even though pre-service science teachers learned scientific practices and inquiry, they were not able to implement due to some constraints: mentor teachers forced them to teach on a traditional basis. They could only complete the required four-hour teaching practice. Student teachers reflected on their learning as becoming a science teacher, but their actions were restricted, and they could not find supportive community in school and classroom context.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.4.229
Pages: 229-239
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The study investigated the impact of YouTube video assisted instructions (YVAI) on pre-service teachers’(PSTs) attitudes and academic performance in chemistry classroom. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. One hundred and twenty (120) Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs) pursuing primary education programme constituted the participants of the study. Sixty (60) PSTs each were non-randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). Data on PSTs’ attitude and performance were collected with PSTAS and GCPT respectively. The SPSS software version 20 was used to analyse the data to generate descriptive and inferential statistics. A non-parametric analysis was used in the inferential statistics. The attitude means rank (MR=78.62) of EG (U = 713.000, Z=-6.924, p <.001) was statistically higher than CG (MR=42.38) (U = 713.000, Z=-6.924, p <.001) after treatment. The EG after treatment recorded a mean rank (80.86) statistically higher than CG (40.14), U = 578.500, Z = -6.441, p <.001 after treatment. YVAI was proven as an effective instructional strategy that enhances learners’ altitudinal changes and performance. The study recommended the use of YouTube technological-driven instructions to support classroom instructions.

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10.12973/ejmse.5.1.39
Pages: 39-50
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This paper derives from a large research project focusing on mathematics and science assessment of student learning in three high-need, rural, and urban secondary schools in Manitoba, Canada. The study employed qualitative methods of semi-structured interviews and classroom video recordings of teaching practice experiences of 12 mathematics and science teachers, with the purpose that explore how authentic assessment forms assist effective teaching to monitor and motivate student learning achievement and growth. The results indicate that about 67% (eight out of the twelve of the participants) of the research participants practice the traditional mode of standard assessment that consists of multiple forms of questioning. The participants' rationale relates to speedy evaluations of student work, preparing feedback reports to parents and students, and objectivity of the assessment process. The other 33% (four out of twelve of the participants) of participants practice authentic assessment that concentrates on: (1) Allowing students to apply what they have learned rather than testing their ability to memorize and regurgitate concepts, (2) Allowing students to personalize their knowledge and values, (3) Encouraging group project-based learning and with the use of rubric for evaluating and monitoring, (4) Promoting deep learning to become life-long learners, (5) Recognizing, acknowledging, and validating diversity in student learning styles, interests, and aspirations, and further, authentic assessment is an excellent opportunity to apply communicative technologies such as podcasts and webinars in learning and undertaking investigations in mathematics and science learning. Furthermore, some participants asserted that authentic assessments are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and resource-demanding, aside from the limited resources and lack of training, which are some of the challenges of implementing authentic assessment. Other participants stated that all teachers must be familiar with using all assessment tools. The paper concludes that the principal plays a critical instructional leadership role in a school-wide implementation of authentic assessment.

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10.12973/ejmse.5.2.93
Pages: 93-104
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Use of Magic Tricks as Analogies in the Science Classroom

analogies magic tricks science instruction

Danny Rudnick , Sarah B. Boesdorfer


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Science, magic, and education have always been linked, from science-based magic shows to teachers presenting demonstrations as magic tricks to capture their students’ interest and provide a mnemonic reference for the topics under discussion. Magic as an art form is also often used to convey information or act as an analogy for invisible phenomena. This study examined how the use of a magic effect designed as an analogy for active and passive transport in cells affected student scores and perception of the activity when compared to a standard story analogy in a high school integrated science course. To determine this, students participated in either a magic-based analogy activity (MBAA) or a concrete story-based analogy activity (SBAA), and then data was collected and analysed using a pre-test/post-test for the content and a Likert-scale anonymous survey for the student perception of the activity. The MBAA was shown to be similar to the SBAA in helping students learn but had the added benefit of increasing students’ reported engagement with the activity. This study shows how bringing magic into the science classroom can have a positive impact on student engagement and provides teachers with another option to support student learning.

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10.12973/ejmse.5.2.105
Pages: 105-120
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