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'problem based learning' Search Results



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This is a preliminary paper about a large research project on social mathematics. It proposes points mathematics, a variant of social mathematics, as a viable context for teaching mathematics to adults. Points mathematics, focuses on observing, representing and investigating patterns, regularities and quantitative relationships stemming from convertible points, that businesses offer to their customers/clients for the purpose of encouraging loyalty and for boosting up sales in competitive markets. Using ten illustrative examples, the paper asserts that points mathematics provides practical, realistic context for teaching fundamental mathematics concepts and skills to adult students. These include, but not limited to, the four operations of mathematics (addition, division, subtraction and multiplication), variable, linear equation, graph, rates, percent, ratio, patterns and proportion. The paper is grounded in the theory of realistic mathematics education (RME), that posits that the teaching and learning of mathematics should be contextually-based; entails explaining and solving contextual problems; and establishing high-level interactive relationship between learning and teaching. The paper concludes with three recommendations to guide mathematics teachers of adults who want to implement points mathematics as part of their mathematics curriculum. However, the paper is the first phase of a large research project that explores social mathematics and how it could be integrated in mathematics curricular contents for adult students.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.1.31
Pages: 31-42
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Using engineering design to teach science requires teachers to engage in noticing, interpreting, and responding to students’ needs in real-time. While research has begun to focus on how elementary teachers do so, less is known about how teachers instructionally support and optimize students’ ideas through engineering design feedback. In this study we investigate what instructional moves two elementary teachers’ employ to leverage students’ ideas and reasoning and create opportunities for students to exchange design feedback. Data were gathered using classroom observations of teachers’ implementations of a design task focused on sound and energy transformation. Observations were coded for teachers’ use of high-leverage practices, and event maps were created to chronicle teachers’ implementation of the task from start to finish. Event maps were analyzed and compared for discrete instructional activities and modes of classroom organization that supported opportunities for feedback. Findings suggested that while teachers used similar instructional moves, how and when they created opportunities for student design feedback differed, resulting in diverse ways of assessing and supporting students’ understandings. Implications suggest design feedback as both a purposeful and naturally present phenomenon throughout the design process, reflective of the nature of engineering design.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.53
Pages: 53-65
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In this paper, the categories and influence of teachers’ classroom characteristics relative to effective mathematics teaching in secondary schools in Plateau state, Nigeria were examined. The aim was to see how students are assisted to learn mathematics from teachers engaging fully their professional practices fully. Exploratory and descriptive survey research methods were used to examine the trajectories. Sample for the study consisted of 60 trained mathematics teachers from secondary schools in Plateau state that participated in a week-long capacity building workshop on teaching new concepts from secondary school mathematics curriculum in Nigeria organized recently by the state chapter of the Mathematics Association of Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample based on the fact that the study targeted only mathematics teachers that participated in the capacity building workshop. A 52-item TCCQ on teacher effectiveness, interest, rapport with students, etc. was used for data collection. The findings from the study revealed that mathematics teachers’ ability to teach effectively is significantly associated with many factors including the use of different strategies (χ2=52.75), revision (χ2=47.13), good lesson plans (χ2=53.93) and being friendly with students (χ2=35.66). There was no significant variation regarding how the characteristics influence teacher effectiveness based on qualification (F2, 58=0.689). Among other things, therefore, it was recommended that teachers should be committed to teaching mathematics effectively in the classroom by taking cognizance of the variables especially designing of good lesson plans and previous knowledge irrespective of their qualifications.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.121
Pages: 121-130
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386
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464
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The purpose of this paper is to report a part of a calculus research project, about the performance of a group of pre-service mathematics teachers on two tasks on limit and differentiation of the trigonometric sine function in which the unit of angle measurement was in degrees. Most of the pre-service teachers were not cognizant of the unit of angle measurement in the typical differentiation formula, and a number of participants recognized the condition on the unit of angle measurement but did not translate this to the correct procedure for performing differentiation. The result also shows that most of the participants were not able to associate the derivative formula with the process of deriving it from the first principle. Consequently, they did not associate it with finding  . In the process of evaluating this limit, the pre-service teachers exhibited further misconceptions about division of a number by zero.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.1.1
Pages: 1-12
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509
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558
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School education should not only provide students with content knowledge but also with effective skills that will be appropriate in their adult lives, such as the competence in solving problems individually or being able to work as a member of a team. Students should be active participants instead of passive listeners in their lessons. There is a wide variety of teaching methods that practicing teachers can choose from to make their lessons varied. The present article explains the outline of an experiment that was based on Spencer Kagan’s cooperative learning focusing on one particular lesson. The mathematics lesson was planned using cooperative teaching techniques and was taught in secondary mathematics education. We analyse how well cooperative learning can be used for improving participation and effective problem-solving in the classroom.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.9
Pages: 9-16
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309
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345
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This study aims to acquaint high school students with the process of modelling in mathematics teaching. The research lasted 5 weeks with a group of (N=36) high school students of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Students had an opportunity to learn about functions and their properties, and subsequently about mathematical modelling with linear, quadratic, and logarithmic functions. Examples in the research were related to real-world phenomena and processes. The problems were composed of the following subtasks: creating or testing a model, explaining the results, finding the domain and range, and critical thinking about the model. The research identifies the importance of mathematical modelling in teaching. The results display a positive impact of such an approach on students, their thinking, attitude towards teaching, understanding of the materials, motivation and examination scores. The experiences that both students and teachers may have in a mathematical modelling framework could be extremely important for the academic success. A control group of 36 students took the final exam as well. The students of the experimental group got much better results than the students of the control group. Indeed, learning through mathematical modelling has been shown to contribute to all the aspects of students' expected development.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.2.129
Pages: 129-144
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508
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Algebraic reasoning involves representation, generalization, formalization of patterns and order in all aspects of mathematics. Hence, the focus of algebraic reasoning is on patterns, functions, and the ability to analyze situations with the help of symbols. The purpose of this study was to develop a test instrument to measure students' algebraic reasoning abilities based on cognitive systems in Marzano's taxonomy. The cognitive system in Marzano's taxonomy consists of four levels, including retrieval, comprehension, analysis, and knowledge utilization. According to the stage of cognitive development, students are at the level of knowledge utilization. At this level, students can make decisions, solve problems, generates and test hypotheses, as well as carry out investigations that are in line with indicators of algebraic reasoning abilities. The stages in developing the test instrument were based on three phases: preliminary investigation phase, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The study obtains a set of valid and reliable algebraic reasoning test instruments for students based on the cognitive system in Marzano's taxonomy. Through the development of an algebraic reasoning test instrument based on Marzano's taxonomy, students can build' thinking habits so that active learning exercises occurs.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.2.163
Pages: 163-175
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470
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427
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This study investigated how implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL) can be an effective tool for an instructor to conduct rich formative assessment. Many researchers have documented that IBL promotes active learning from students’ learning perspective. However, little research examines how IBL affects instructors’ teaching practice from teaching perspective. Based on the data collected from a Calculus II class, the author discussed how the structure of IBL class produced rigorous on-going formative assessment during classroom teaching from the three aspects: helping the instructor “see” student thinking; helping the instructor “see” the level of student understanding; helping the instructor catch teachable moments. The rigorous on-going formative assessment, in turn, helped change student classroom behaviors in terms of asking more questions, showing deep thinking, and gaining confidence.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.1
Pages: 1-8
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394
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The ability to think critically is a basic competency that must be possessed by students. This study aims to determine the level of critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Bima Regency, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Various studies have been carried out that explain how important students' critical thinking skills are, but there have not been too many studies on efforts to develop and empower students' critical thinking skills in a practical way. In this thesis, we introduce the technique of empowering students' critical thinking skills by developing a virtual laboratory media based on problem based learning on the material of the human excretory system. In this development, use software construct2 to develop a device which is then integrated with a problem based learning model. It is proven that a virtual laboratory based on problem based learning can improve the critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Belo Kaputen Bima District. We hope that the development of PBL-based virtual laboratory media can improve dramatically, such as the use of 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional software to improve students' understanding of critical and constructive thinking without losing quality.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.35
Pages: 35-47
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610
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The students' low science process skills are caused by learning that is still dominated by the teacher, so it is necessary to develop a learning approach that focuses students in the learning process. One approach that can be used is learning that integrates science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study aims to measure the improvement of students' science process skills that are integrated with the STEM approach on the reaction rate material. This research is a quantitative research with a pre-experimental design type, one group pretest-posttest with a sample of 30 students from class XI SMA Negeri 9 Pontianak, taken by random sampling technique. The data collection tool used is a subjective test of science process skills. The results showed that there was an effect of the STEM approach on the students' science process skills on the reaction rate material, with a score of 76.11, good criteria. Among the aspects of science process skills measured, including observation, classifying, calculating, predicting, inferring, and communication, the communication aspect of students experienced a significant increase from a score of 3.33 to 91.1. This study shows that the STEM approach to reaction rate learning effectively improves students' science process skills.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.135
Pages: 135-143
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151
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543
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Mathematical connection ability is very important to be mastered by prospective mathematics teacher students as competency to teach in secondary schools. However, the facts show that there are still many students who have weak mathematical connection abilities. This qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore how the process, and product of the mathematical connection made by prospective mathematics teacher students when solving the integral calculus problems based on their prior knowledge. The research subjects were 58 students who were prospective high school mathematics teachers at the University of Jember, Indonesia. Data were collected using documentation, questionnaire, test, and interview methods. After the test results of all subjects were analyzed, six students were interviewed. To find the match between the results of the written test and the results of the interview, a triangulation method was carried out. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative analysis with steps of data categorization, data presentation, interpretation, and making conclusions. The results show that the research subjects have connected and used mathematical ideas in the form of procedures, facts, concepts/principles, and representations in solving integral calculus problems. Students with high prior knowledge abilities can make better mathematical connections than students with moderate and low prior abilities. From these results, it is recommended that lecturers need to improve students' prior knowledge and train the students more intensely to solve integral calculus problems so all students can develop their mathematical connection abilities into very strong categories.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.105
Pages: 105-116
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288
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A mathematics instructor with limited knowledge of content and pedagogy has little room for improvement or novelty in the classroom or the ability to arouse students' interest in learning mathematics. This case study was conducted in a foundation center of one of the public universities in Malaysia. The target of current research was to investigate the influence of lesson study (LS) on lecturers’ pedagogical content and content knowledge. The LS group comprises of seven lecturers of the mathematics group and the researcher. The group collaboratively prepared a research lesson on the subject of even and odd functions. Data gathered through interviews and observations on the lecturers’ activities in discussion meetings. Data from observations and interviews were analyzed descriptively and through thematic analysis method respectively. The results of this study show lecturers improved their knowledge in content and pedagogy considerably about even and odd functions. They enhanced their teaching knowledge through collaborative work and sharing of experiences. It seems the findings of this research not only help lecturers to have better performance in teaching the even and odd functions but also encourage them to experience the LS approach in teaching other mathematical concepts.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.119
Pages: 119-133
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A Study of Students’ Self-Efficacy in Mathematics Performance Based on Bugis Ethnicity and Gender

bugis ethnic gender mathematics performance self-efficacy

Syamsu Alam , Mega Teguh Budiarto , Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono


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The study on mathematical performance was significant enough to be studied further to measure students' self-efficacy. Although studies on student self-efficacy in math performance from a gender perspective were abundant, studies on this relationship from the perspectives of ethnic culture and gender were scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of Bugis Junior High School students in solving math problems based on gender. The researchers used an algebra problem in the context of the Bugis ethnic culture. For this data set, two of 25 students at a public junior high school in Bone, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, were interviewed based on ethnicity and gender. Qualitatively, the triangulation technique was employed for data analysis. The study results revealed that male students outperformed girls in terms of self-efficacy, namely magnitude, strength, and generality, in math performance. Furthermore, female students had lower self-efficacy in terms of confidence, supportive experience in completing math tasks, and confidence in their ability to complete math tasks in similar or different contexts, compared to male students, who had higher self-efficacy. This result provided new knowledge by exploring the characteristics of students' self-efficacy by integrating ethnicity and gender.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.155
Pages: 155-170
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553
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574
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This study aims 1) to determine the effectiveness of the Mind-Mapping based Aptitude Treatment Interaction model towards creative thinking and 2) to explain the mathematical creative thinking process based on the creative level. The number of participants was 26 students who took the Multivariable Calculus course in the odd semester of 2020/2021. This research used the mixed-concurrent embedded method. The data collection techniques were validation, observation, creative thinking tests, and interviews. The results showed that 1) the Mind-Mapping based Aptitude Treatment Interaction model was effective in developing creative thinking, as indicated by the average creative thinking score of the experimental class, which was higher than the control class and 2) the characteristics of students mathematical creative thinking process varied following the creative thinking levels. The students mathematical creative thinking level consists of not creative (CTL 0), less creative (CTL 1), quite creative (CTL 2), creative (CTL 3), and very creative (CTL 4). Students at the CTL 2, CTL 3, and CTL 4 can meet the aspects of fluency, flexibility, and originality.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.181
Pages: 181-190
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526
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The current study investigated whether: (1) using an interactive presentation (IP) platform could affect the amount of usage of the practices of making orchestrating mathematical discourse- sequencing and connecting students' responses. (2) using an interactive presentation (IP) platform could affect the amount of narratives constructed by students. Fifty seventh-grade students participated in the study; those students were divided into control and experimental groups. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed based on voice recordings and field notes. The results revealed that the teacher using (IP) asked nearly three times more questions that connected students’ responses (i.e., questions that involved valuing students' ideas, exploring students' answers, incorporating students’ background knowledge, and encouraging student-to-student communication). We also saw that the students participated in the learning processes. The students in the experimental group presented three times as many narratives as those in the control group. We present several excerpts from the transcripts of the classroom discussions to illustrate our findings. Discussion of the implications and limitations of these results and make recommendations based on those results.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.1
Pages: 1-17
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313
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The diversity of definitions of science literacy has resulted in a diversity of measurement tools. However, adult science literacy is mainly assessed on short standardized and non-contextualized questions, thus making the study of adult science literacy more qualitative than quantitative. Here we describe the rationale, development, and validation of a questionnaire that associates the use of science in the specific science-related setting of parents of hard of hearing children with general and topic-specific science knowledge. The questionnaire went through four developmental steps: (1) gathering input from hearing rehabilitation experts and parents, (2) testing the close-ended questionnaire (n=10), (3) open-ended questionnaire (n=24), (4) online close-ended questionnaire (n=91). These all assessed general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. These steps and the resulting assessment tool can thus inform the further development of measures of adult science literacy in context. The findings suggest that although general science knowledge enables the application of science to everyday science-related problems it only explained a small proportion of the variance in contextual science knowledge. Thus, the results strongly point to the importance of measuring adults' science literacy in a context that is relevant to the responders. The findings also underscored the disappointing outcomes of secondary science education, in that formal scientific background predicted general science knowledge but did not account for contextual science knowledge at all. This should elicit concern as to the ability of students to use science knowledge in future personally important science related contexts.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.29
Pages: 29-47
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The ability of students to build problem-solving models using procedural knowledge can be viewed from several aspects, including Mastery of Mathematical Problem Solving (MPS), understanding concepts and application of concepts, the relationship between learning outcomes of mathematics and interest in learning, and examine the contribution of the ability to understand concept problems, the application of concepts to the ability of MPS, as well as student difficulties and some of the advantages of students in solving problems. This experimental study aims to explain the effect of the MPS model using procedural knowledge on solving mathematical problems for Junior High School Students (JHSS). The findings showed that 1) The MPS method using procedural knowledge significantly improved learning outcomes, but the mastery of MPS for JHSS was still unsatisfactory. 2) MPS teaching could still not improve meaningful learning outcomes. However, when JHSS applied the concepts, calculations, and problem-solving aspects, MPS teaching improved meaningful learning outcomes. 3) Students' interest in learning mathematics in the two sample classes was classified as positive. Shortly, MPS teaching accustoms students to think systematically and creatively and not just give up on the problems they face.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.95
Pages: 95-109
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This study tested hypotheses of a hypothetical model determining the influence of teacher clarity and real-world applications while teaching group theory concepts on students’ achievement in modern algebra. The data collected from 139 undergraduate students were analyzed by regression analysis using Stata14’s structural equation model building and estimation. The path regression analysis of the model using SEM model building and estimation confirmed the research hypotheses. First, the utilization of real-world application problems while teaching group theory concepts has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Second, the clear presentation of group theory concepts by the teacher has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Finally, both teachers’ clear presentation of group theory concepts and utilization of its real-world applications have a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.111
Pages: 111-119
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155
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In terms of learning and academic level, this study compares the development of mathematical creative thinking skills between students who use the Blended Learning Model with GeoGebra support (BLM-G) and students who use the Blended Learning Model without GeoGebra aid (BLM-non-G). A nonequivalent control-group design and a quasi-experimental research methodology are being used. The participants in this study were eighth-grade SMPN students in Ternate City, Indonesia. The research sample was 125 people from two schools with different grade levels. The instrument used is a mathematical creative thinking ability test. Research result; Learning using BLM-G influences students' mathematical creative thinking abilities at high and medium school levels, with very high categories. When compared to kids who learn using BLM-non-G learning, students who use BLM-G learning exhibit greater growth in their capacity for both mathematical and creative thought. This is based on high school level pupils. Kids who study using BLM-G learning and students who learn using BLM-non-G learning exhibit equal increases in their capacity for mathematical and creative thought at the middle school level.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.149
Pages: 149-159
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During the Covid-19 pandemic, this study investigated the role of metacognitive awareness as a mediator in the correlation between attitude and mathematical reasoning among undergraduates who are first year university students. These studies distribute mathematical reasoning assessments, metacognitive awareness questionnaires, and attitude surveys as research data. One hundred eighty-four undergraduate students from one public institution in Malaysia's Klang Valley area participated in the research. The impact of metacognitive awareness on attitude and mathematical reasoning was studied using Version 25 of the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences. The findings indicated that undergraduate mathematics and science education students excelled in non-mathematics and science education students in mathematical reasoning capacity. According to the findings, undergraduate mathematics and science education students had good metacognitive understanding and used more approaches in mathematical reasoning assessment. Further study implies that more research should be conducted to assess different demographics, such as institute training teachers' metacognitive awareness and attitude towards mathematical reasoning.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.3.169
Pages: 169-180
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438
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427
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