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Using engineering design to teach science requires teachers to engage in noticing, interpreting, and responding to students’ needs in real-time. While research has begun to focus on how elementary teachers do so, less is known about how teachers instructionally support and optimize students’ ideas through engineering design feedback. In this study we investigate what instructional moves two elementary teachers’ employ to leverage students’ ideas and reasoning and create opportunities for students to exchange design feedback. Data were gathered using classroom observations of teachers’ implementations of a design task focused on sound and energy transformation. Observations were coded for teachers’ use of high-leverage practices, and event maps were created to chronicle teachers’ implementation of the task from start to finish. Event maps were analyzed and compared for discrete instructional activities and modes of classroom organization that supported opportunities for feedback. Findings suggested that while teachers used similar instructional moves, how and when they created opportunities for student design feedback differed, resulting in diverse ways of assessing and supporting students’ understandings. Implications suggest design feedback as both a purposeful and naturally present phenomenon throughout the design process, reflective of the nature of engineering design.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.53
Pages: 53-65
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Preservice mathematics teachers' beliefs about actions related to the use of the technological tools in teaching mathematics may affect how they are going to use them in their classroom activities. However, there is a limited evidence of what beliefs they hold on their intended actions of using technological tools in teaching mathematics. This study presents two preservice high school mathematics teachers' actional beliefs related to their intended actions in teaching geometric transformations (GTs) using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP). The study comprised of a series of five task-based qualitative interviews with each of two senior undergraduate preservice teachers at a medium-sized public university in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. This study used a radical constructivist grounded theory (RCGT) with five assumptions—symbiosis, voice, cognition, adaptation, and praxis as a theoretical framework to guide the study process. The thematic findings of the study included four in vivo categories of their beliefs associated with actions of teaching GTs with GSP – assessment of student learning, engaging students in a group activity in exploring GTs with GSP, engaging students in individual activity in exploring GTs with GSP, and exploring GTs with GSP as 'suck it up and do it.' Pedagogical implications of these categories have been discussed.

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10.12973/ejmse.1.2.91
Pages: 91-106
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647
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Effectiveness of Semiosis for Solving the Quadratic Equation

de saussure model effectiveness peirce model quadratic equation semiosis

Ernest Kofi Davis , Clement Ayarebilla Ali , Douglas Darko Agyei


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The study examines the effectiveness of employing semiosis in the teaching and learning of the Quadratic Equation. The first goal is to compare results of De Saussure and Peirce models within the semiotic theory. The second goal is to determine the commonest effective semiotic objects student teachers mostly employ to solve for the roots in quadratic equations. This research method was mixed methods concurrent and adopted both quantitative and qualitative approach. The instruments for the study were teacher-made tests and interview guide structured on the likert scale. In the teacher-made tests, two sets of twenty questions were set and distributed to the respondents. The sets of questions were similar and each twenty questions were based on De Saussure and Peirce Semiotic Models. The analyses employed both quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative analysis, three categorical independent variables were fixed on and Pierre and De Saussaure models, objects of Pierre and De Saussaure models, and diachronicity, trichronicity, categorization and quadratic equations, after satisfying normality and independent assumptions of t-test and ANOVA techniques. The qualitative analysis with ensured anonymity, confidentiality and privacy of respondents and transcribed responses from semi-structured interview guide. The results of the commonest semiotic objects improved significantly classroom interactions with Peirce model than with De Saussure model. They perceived the Peirce model as being broader, comprehensive, universal and ICT-compliant. We therefore recommended further quasi-experimental studies on semiotic objects to improve upon the use of cultural objects.

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10.12973/ejmse.2.1.13
Pages: 13-21
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The ability to think critically is a basic competency that must be possessed by students. This study aims to determine the level of critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Bima Regency, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Various studies have been carried out that explain how important students' critical thinking skills are, but there have not been too many studies on efforts to develop and empower students' critical thinking skills in a practical way. In this thesis, we introduce the technique of empowering students' critical thinking skills by developing a virtual laboratory media based on problem based learning on the material of the human excretory system. In this development, use software construct2 to develop a device which is then integrated with a problem based learning model. It is proven that a virtual laboratory based on problem based learning can improve the critical thinking skills of junior high school students in Belo Kaputen Bima District. We hope that the development of PBL-based virtual laboratory media can improve dramatically, such as the use of 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional software to improve students' understanding of critical and constructive thinking without losing quality.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.1.35
Pages: 35-47
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784
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610
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Mathematical connection ability is very important to be mastered by prospective mathematics teacher students as competency to teach in secondary schools. However, the facts show that there are still many students who have weak mathematical connection abilities. This qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore how the process, and product of the mathematical connection made by prospective mathematics teacher students when solving the integral calculus problems based on their prior knowledge. The research subjects were 58 students who were prospective high school mathematics teachers at the University of Jember, Indonesia. Data were collected using documentation, questionnaire, test, and interview methods. After the test results of all subjects were analyzed, six students were interviewed. To find the match between the results of the written test and the results of the interview, a triangulation method was carried out. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative analysis with steps of data categorization, data presentation, interpretation, and making conclusions. The results show that the research subjects have connected and used mathematical ideas in the form of procedures, facts, concepts/principles, and representations in solving integral calculus problems. Students with high prior knowledge abilities can make better mathematical connections than students with moderate and low prior abilities. From these results, it is recommended that lecturers need to improve students' prior knowledge and train the students more intensely to solve integral calculus problems so all students can develop their mathematical connection abilities into very strong categories.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.105
Pages: 105-116
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203
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288
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A Study of Students’ Self-Efficacy in Mathematics Performance Based on Bugis Ethnicity and Gender

bugis ethnic gender mathematics performance self-efficacy

Syamsu Alam , Mega Teguh Budiarto , Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono


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The study on mathematical performance was significant enough to be studied further to measure students' self-efficacy. Although studies on student self-efficacy in math performance from a gender perspective were abundant, studies on this relationship from the perspectives of ethnic culture and gender were scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of Bugis Junior High School students in solving math problems based on gender. The researchers used an algebra problem in the context of the Bugis ethnic culture. For this data set, two of 25 students at a public junior high school in Bone, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, were interviewed based on ethnicity and gender. Qualitatively, the triangulation technique was employed for data analysis. The study results revealed that male students outperformed girls in terms of self-efficacy, namely magnitude, strength, and generality, in math performance. Furthermore, female students had lower self-efficacy in terms of confidence, supportive experience in completing math tasks, and confidence in their ability to complete math tasks in similar or different contexts, compared to male students, who had higher self-efficacy. This result provided new knowledge by exploring the characteristics of students' self-efficacy by integrating ethnicity and gender.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.155
Pages: 155-170
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553
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573
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The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to measure students’ knowledge and skills needed for today’s society. PISA is a large-scale assessment of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, and science. In this analysis of PISA data from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), we examined the relationship between gender, mathematics achievement, and perceived meaning in life in BIH students. The sample for this analysis comprised 6480 students (3148 females and 3332 males). The results of the analysis revealed a small but statistically significant, negative relationship between mathematics and the student’s perception of the meaning in life. Boys achieved higher scores in mathematics than girls, but the difference was relatively small. In addition, boys’ rating of meaning in life was higher than that of girls. Knowing what factors influence mathematical achievement might help educators create better intervention programs. In conclusion, we provided some possible explanations for these data.

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10.12973/ejmse.3.2.171
Pages: 171-179
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The diversity of definitions of science literacy has resulted in a diversity of measurement tools. However, adult science literacy is mainly assessed on short standardized and non-contextualized questions, thus making the study of adult science literacy more qualitative than quantitative. Here we describe the rationale, development, and validation of a questionnaire that associates the use of science in the specific science-related setting of parents of hard of hearing children with general and topic-specific science knowledge. The questionnaire went through four developmental steps: (1) gathering input from hearing rehabilitation experts and parents, (2) testing the close-ended questionnaire (n=10), (3) open-ended questionnaire (n=24), (4) online close-ended questionnaire (n=91). These all assessed general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. These steps and the resulting assessment tool can thus inform the further development of measures of adult science literacy in context. The findings suggest that although general science knowledge enables the application of science to everyday science-related problems it only explained a small proportion of the variance in contextual science knowledge. Thus, the results strongly point to the importance of measuring adults' science literacy in a context that is relevant to the responders. The findings also underscored the disappointing outcomes of secondary science education, in that formal scientific background predicted general science knowledge but did not account for contextual science knowledge at all. This should elicit concern as to the ability of students to use science knowledge in future personally important science related contexts.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.29
Pages: 29-47
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Many research studies have been conducted on students’ or pre-service teachers’ geometric thinking, but there is a lack of studies investigating in-service teachers’ geometric thinking. This paper presents a case study of two high school teachers who attended the dynamic geometry (DG) professional development project for three years. The project focused on the effective use of dynamic geometry software to improve students’ geometry learning. The two teachers were interviewed using a task-based interview protocol about the relationship between two triangles. The interviews, including the teachers' work, were videotaped, transcribed, and analyzed based on the three levels of geometric thinking: recognition, analysis, and deduction. We found that the participating teachers manifested their geometric skills and thinking in constructing, exploring, and conjecturing in the DG environment. The study suggests that the DG environment provides an effective platform for examining teachers' geometric skills, and levels of geometric thinking and encourages inductive explorations and deductive skill development.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.65
Pages: 65-78
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate synchronous and asynchronous mathematics teaching modalities at Isabela State University. The qualitative research method was used to collect information, opinions, and experiences of Isabela State University mathematics faculty in employing synchronous and asynchronous modes in teaching mathematical courses in terms of strengths, weaknesses, possibilities, and problems. The study's subjects were 15 Mathematics Instructors chosen at random from Isabela State University's nine campuses. A structured interview was created and distributed to participants using Google Form. The limitations on face-to-face encounters prompted the use of such data-gathering technique. The researcher followed up with another video call interview to validate the participants' responses. The data was transcribed and processed using thematic analysis. The findings demonstrated that the synchronous and asynchronous learning modalities both have strengths and disadvantages that influence the quality of the teaching-learning process throughout the epidemic. Given this, distant learning is thought to be more effective when both modalities are used rather to just one of the aforementioned. This is because the strengths of one of the two modalities can solve the flaws highlighted in the other. As a result, mathematics instructors may receive more in-depth training in both asynchronous and synchronous teaching approaches, as well as strategies for becoming more successful teachers during the present school closures.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.1.79
Pages: 79-93
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141
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190
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The ability of students to build problem-solving models using procedural knowledge can be viewed from several aspects, including Mastery of Mathematical Problem Solving (MPS), understanding concepts and application of concepts, the relationship between learning outcomes of mathematics and interest in learning, and examine the contribution of the ability to understand concept problems, the application of concepts to the ability of MPS, as well as student difficulties and some of the advantages of students in solving problems. This experimental study aims to explain the effect of the MPS model using procedural knowledge on solving mathematical problems for Junior High School Students (JHSS). The findings showed that 1) The MPS method using procedural knowledge significantly improved learning outcomes, but the mastery of MPS for JHSS was still unsatisfactory. 2) MPS teaching could still not improve meaningful learning outcomes. However, when JHSS applied the concepts, calculations, and problem-solving aspects, MPS teaching improved meaningful learning outcomes. 3) Students' interest in learning mathematics in the two sample classes was classified as positive. Shortly, MPS teaching accustoms students to think systematically and creatively and not just give up on the problems they face.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.95
Pages: 95-109
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This study tested hypotheses of a hypothetical model determining the influence of teacher clarity and real-world applications while teaching group theory concepts on students’ achievement in modern algebra. The data collected from 139 undergraduate students were analyzed by regression analysis using Stata14’s structural equation model building and estimation. The path regression analysis of the model using SEM model building and estimation confirmed the research hypotheses. First, the utilization of real-world application problems while teaching group theory concepts has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Second, the clear presentation of group theory concepts by the teacher has a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra. Finally, both teachers’ clear presentation of group theory concepts and utilization of its real-world applications have a significant influence on students’ achievement in modern algebra.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.2.111
Pages: 111-119
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During the Covid-19 pandemic, this study investigated the role of metacognitive awareness as a mediator in the correlation between attitude and mathematical reasoning among undergraduates who are first year university students. These studies distribute mathematical reasoning assessments, metacognitive awareness questionnaires, and attitude surveys as research data. One hundred eighty-four undergraduate students from one public institution in Malaysia's Klang Valley area participated in the research. The impact of metacognitive awareness on attitude and mathematical reasoning was studied using Version 25 of the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences. The findings indicated that undergraduate mathematics and science education students excelled in non-mathematics and science education students in mathematical reasoning capacity. According to the findings, undergraduate mathematics and science education students had good metacognitive understanding and used more approaches in mathematical reasoning assessment. Further study implies that more research should be conducted to assess different demographics, such as institute training teachers' metacognitive awareness and attitude towards mathematical reasoning.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.3.169
Pages: 169-180
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Bring your own device (BYOD) policy implementation in schools worldwide has allowed students to learn subjects, including mathematics, using personal mobile devices (PMDs). PMD use has enhanced students’ mathematics enjoyment by bridging the gap between theoretical mathematics concepts and their practical applications, which makes mathematics more meaningful and leads to improved results. Nonetheless, students in Namibian basic education are not authorised to learn with PMDs in school. While students’ PMD use in school remains a topic of debate, there remains a need to investigate its impact on students’ mathematics learning and teachers’ perceptions of BYOD in mathematics classrooms. This study evaluated the perceptions and intentions of 209 Namibian mathematics teachers from the Omusati and Khomas regions regarding students’ mathematics learning using PMDs in schools. Data were collected through an online survey. A structural equation model revealed teachers’ positive intentions towards students’ use of PMDs through BYOD in learning mathematics in school. Perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEoU), and price value (PV) factors directly affected the teachers’ behavioural intentions (BI) towards students learning mathematics through BYOD. PEoU significantly affected teachers’ PU, and PV significantly affected teachers’ PEoU and PU. PU significantly mediated the relationship between PEoU and teachers’ intentions. PV significantly indirectly affected teachers’ intentions through PU. PEoU non-significantly mediated the PV and intention relationship. Practical implications are discussed, and recommendations are offered for the Namibian Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture and teacher training institutions.

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10.12973/ejmse.4.4.253
Pages: 253-268
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The overall aim of this study is to examine the association between Swedish students’ attitudes towards mathematics, mathematics achievement as measured by the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), socioeconomic status (SES), and educational background variables. A further aim is to investigate whether students’ attitudes towards mathematics have a mediating role between their mathematics achievement and their background. Several indicators of students’ SES and background, taken from both the TIMSS 2015 database and from Swedish official registers, were used. The overall results show that there were differences in attitudes towards mathematics in relation to the different SES and educational background measures. There are also associations between students’ SES and both TIMSS mathematics achievement and their attitudes towards mathematics. The students’ attitudes towards mathematics only had a small mediation role between the students’ backgrounds and TIMSS mathematics achievement. Finally, although the mediation models had a better fit when including other information, the mediation effect was lower. Practical implications of the obtained results are discussed.

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10.12973/ejmse.5.1.13
Pages: 13-26
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Predicting Learning Interest among Taiwanese Students in the Context of Big Science Issues

big science covid-19 learning enjoyment learning interest socio-scientific issues

Brady Michael Jack , Chi-Chen Chen , Hsin-Hui Wang , Thomas J. Smith


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Research shows that learning enjoyment in specific socio-scientific issues (SSI) plays an important role in predicting grade 10 students’ learning interest and learning enjoyment (i.e., genuine interest) in SSI subjects generally. However, it remains unexplored whether learning enjoyment also mediates a predictive effect of learning interest in a Big Science SSI of pressing contemporary global concern—COVID-19—on grade 12 high school students’ learning interest in SSI generally. The purpose of this study is to investigate how learning enjoyment may mediate the predictive effect of learning interest in the specific Big Science SSI of COVID-19 specifically on students’ learning interest in SSI subjects generally. Latent variable modeling using data collected from grade 12 students (N = 691) showed personal perceptions of learning enjoyment in SSI partially mediated the predictive effect of learning interest in the SSI of COVID-19 on learning interest in other Big Science SSI subjects. Implications for promoting among science educators and policy specialists the active development of students’ individual interests and involvement in other 21st century Big Science SSI challenges are forwarded. 

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10.12973/ejmse.5.2.121
Pages: 121-133
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